Stomatitis: A Very Common Disease that you don’t even know!

Stomatitis: A Very Common Disease that you don’t even know!

What is stomatitis?

Stomatitis is the name of a whole group of diseases that affect the oral mucosa. Almost every person on earth has encountered at least one type of stomatitis. The body does not develop immunity to it, but on the contrary, there is a high chance of getting sick with it again.

However, some forms of the disease are highly contagious.

There are no special tests to diagnose stomatitis, so the doctor assesses the degree of mucosal damage and the type of disease only by examination. In this case, stomatitis itself can be a symptom of another, more serious disease, therefore, when diagnosing and drawing up a treatment plan, the overall clinical picture is important.

Why can there be stomatitis?

Experts still cannot say for sure why a person starts to get stomatitis. There are a number of possible reasons:

  • damage to the mucous membrane, tongue and gums, for example, dentures, tooth fragments and overhanging edges of fillings

  • allergic reaction to food, oral hygiene products

  • concomitant diseases - for example, ARVI, herpes, diabetes mellitus

  • poor quality oral care

  • dental diseases (caries) and tartar

  • a general decrease in immunity, for example, due to frequent viral infectious diseases, vitamin deficiency or stress

  • decrease in the protective properties of saliva

  • violation of the microflora of the oral cavity and intestines

  • poorly made, poorly installed or worn out dentures

  • pathogenic microorganisms that affect the oral mucosa

  • systemic diseases of the body (anemia, metabolic disorders, hormonal and autoimmune problems)

  • the use of certain medications

  • bad habits (for example, smoking)

And also, according to scientists, the cause of stomatitis can be toothpastes with sodium lauryl sulfate. Research has shown that this substance provokes the development of chronic diseases of the oral mucosa, as well as their exacerbation.

Common symptoms of stomatitis:

Symptoms of stomatitis depend on the form of the disease and on how much the mucous membrane is affected. The main signs of stomatitis:

  • Swelling and redness of the mucous membrane. This is the first sign of stomatitis. If at this moment you do not start treatment, then oval or round ulcers appear at the site of redness. They can be gray or white with a red halo and film on top.

  • Pain in the area of ​​foci of inflammation and ulcers. In severe stomatitis, ulcers literally sprinkle the inner surface of the cheeks and lips, and can also be under the tongue. As a rule, the pain is so strong that the person cannot eat.

  • Fever and headaches. If stomatitis is mild, that is, there are only 1-2 ulcers on the mucous membrane, then the temperature rises slightly. But when there are many of them, a fever begins, and the column on the thermometer creeps up.

When the first symptoms of any form of stomatitis appear, you need to seek help from a dentist. It is he who will identify the cause and prescribe the correct treatment. And the sooner you start it, the faster the symptoms of the disease disappear.

Forms of stomatitis:

  • Catarrhal

Stomatitis of this kind is the most common. With this form of the disease, the patient complains of swelling and soreness of the mucous membrane. It turns red, can be covered with a coating - white or yellow, bleeding and bad breath appear.

  • Aphthous

It is characterized by the appearance on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity aft - erosions of an oval or round shape with a hyperemic (red) rim, covered with fibrinous bloom, soft, painful on palpation. Before the appearance of aphthae, the area of ​​the mucous membrane turns red and begins to protrude, a burning sensation appears. With a mild form of the disease, there may be 1-2 aft, and they heal on the fifth or sixth day. And in severe cases, there are much more ulcers, and after recovery, scars remain in their places. Such stomatitis is of a chronic nature, and depending on the state of the body, the disease can manifest itself up to six times a year.

  • Candidal

The reason behind this disease is the multiplication of fungi of the genus Candida, the number of which is increasing due to a decrease in immunity or prolonged use of antibacterial drugs. The appearance of white plaque on the tongue and mouth, a burning sensation, redness of the mucous membranes, an unpleasant taste in the mouth, or loss of taste are all symptoms of this type of disease. Infants, as well as patients who use removable dentures for a long time, are susceptible to candidal stomatitis.

  • Herpetic (or herpes)

It can affect both an adult and a child. This form of stomatitis occurs due to the herpes simplex virus, which, once entering the body, remains in it forever. With this form of stomatitis, the mucous membrane first turns red. She becomes painful and sensitive to any external influences. Then the oral cavity is covered with small (3-5 mm) vesicles, which quickly break through, becoming round or oval sores - aphthae - with a narrow red rim and a white-gray bloom in the center. The process is accompanied by quite severe pain. Depending on the number of rashes, the disease proceeds in a mild, moderate or severe form, which is accompanied by a deterioration in general well-being and an increase in temperature, especially in children.

  • Allergic

In a child, it can arise as a reaction to a new product introduced into the diet. And adults can face this form of stomatitis due to weakened immunity or inflammation in the oral cavity. The main distinguishing features of allergic stomatitis are itching in the mouth, which intensifies after eating, the release of a large amount of thick saliva, and very severe swelling.

A good dentist, as a rule, only needs to examine the patient's oral cavity and listen to his complaints in order to determine what form of stomatitis he has. The accuracy of the diagnosis is the key to the effectiveness of the treatment.

How to treat stomatitis?

Whatever the form of stomatitis, treatment always begins with your first dentist appointment.

He diagnoses and prescribes treatment. If necessary, you might require to consult other specialists, for example, a gastroenterologist, immunologist or allergist.

Depending on the form of stomatitis, the doctor examines the patient and listens to complaints or prescribes laboratory tests, for example, bacterial culture of a smear or skin scraping, as well as a PCR study to determine the pathogen (herpes virus, fungus, etc.). Treatment for stomatitis usually occurs with local remedies and includes:

  • normalization and maintenance of high-quality oral hygiene

  • spot treatment of ulcers with drugs with antimicrobial, antiviral or antifungal effects

  • pain relief with anesthetics

  • reducing swelling and redness with anti-inflammatory drugs

In addition, a special diet is part of the therapy, which will help reduce inflammation and will not irritate the mucous membranes.

What can you eat with stomatitis?

Inflamed mucous membranes and ulcers in the mouth make it impossible to eat as usual. Therefore, during the illness, you have to change your eating habits. This is necessary to reduce discomfort, reduce inflammation and restore normal microflora. Warm food of soft consistency that does not irritate the mucous membrane is recommended. With stomatitis, you can eat:

  • warm fermented milk products (fermented baked milk, kefir)

  • compotes and jelly from fresh berries or dried fruits

  • liquid porridge

  • steamed and mashed meat and fish

  • lean broth soups

  • curd dishes

If a child is sick with stomatitis, then the diet depends on the age of the baby and on the form of the disease. Give your baby warm drinks more often, which soften the mucous membrane and reduce the intoxication process, especially after feeding. It can be chamomile tea or even plain boiled water. And if stomatitis is in an infant, then pay extra attention to sterilizing bottles and nipples and handling the breast before and after feeding.

Regardless of the patient's age, the stop list for stomatitis patients includes:

  • bread

  • juices, berries and fruits

  • smoked products

  • spicy and highly salty food

  • chips and croutons

  • fried fish and meat dishes

If you have stomatitis, you will need to temporarily change your diet to liquid or semi-liquid foods. In this case, you cannot even eat soft bread or cookies, as they can injure the inflamed mucous membrane.

What will happen if stomatitis is not treated?

  • Chronic stomatitis

  • According to statistics, this is the most common complication.
    It means that a focus of infection will be present in the body all the time. This means that the symptoms of the disease will periodically appear.

  • The appearance of scars

  • Due to permanent non-healing ulcers on the mucous membrane, scars are formed

  • Laryngitis

  • If the infection spreads to the airways, a cough appears and the voice becomes hoarse.

  • Vision problems

  • With advanced herpetic stomatitis, the infection begins to affect the mucous membranes of other organs, such as the eyes.

  • Tooth instability

  • Prolonged stomatitis will gradually lead to damage to the periodontal tissues and, as a result, can cause loosening of the teeth.

How not to get stomatitis again?

After the acute period of the disease has passed, the discomfort and bleeding will disappear, it is recommended to undergo professional oral hygiene . A hygienist conducts it. With the help of ultrasound, it removes tartar and soft plaque, and with them dangerous microorganisms. In addition, it is necessary to cure the teeth affected by caries, to correct or replace orthopedic structures and prostheses. All this will help to avoid relapse.